A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field. It is an electronic component, which has two terminals. The effect of a capacitor is known as Capacitance.
The capacitor reactance is applied to the system by using a static capacitor in shunt or series with the system. Rather than using a single unit of capacitor per phase of the system, it is better to use a capacitor bank, as per maintenance and erection. This group of capacitor units is known as the capacitor bank.
There are two types of capacitor bank according to the connection;
- Shunt Capacitors
- Series Capacitors
A capacitor that is connected to a supply point is known as a shunt capacitor. Shunt capacitors are an integral part of a system because they help in power factor correction. The function of the shunt capacitor depends on the application.
During the power transmission, there are many trouble factors like; power factor, poor voltage regulation, poor efficiency, and low reliability. The technique, which is used to keep away these issues is known as Shunt Capacitive Reimbursement.
Shunt Capacitors are also known as power factor correction capacitors which provide different functions along with several advantages.
Advantages of Shunt Capacitors
There are many advantages to shunt capacitors, which include;
- The loss of transmission power is decreased by reducing reactive current in the case when the reactive power is decreased.
- The power factor for the source of the generator can be increased.
- High capacity can be provided to the power towards the load.
- Pressure can be decreased for the excitation system of the generator.
- Low voltage drop improves regulation.
- Peak load demand can be achieved easily.
- The power system life can be increased because of low loading.
Applications of Shunt Capacitors
Shunt capacitors have many useful applications, which include;
- Used in dielectric power systems.
- Used as reactive power resources by connecting them in line-to-neutral.
- These capacitors are also used in the connection of electric utilities in series through long lines to decrease impedance.
- These capacitors are also used by utilities at distribution by using voltages for providing reactive power by the inductive loads.
- These capacitors enhance the capability of power transfer for a transmission system without using a big conductor.
- These capacitors also support the voltage of the transmission system, which is a requirement when the transmission grid is removed.
- These capacitors also increase the operating voltages of the transmission bus. When the transmission voltage increases, a low current is required to supply the load so that transmission losses will decrease.
- Shunt capacitors are also known as power factor correction capacitors, as they serve various functions and provide various benefits.
- The increase in percentage voltage of shunt capacitors is independent of load. Therefore, automatic switching is applied to deliver the desired regulation at high loads, but it can prevent excessive voltage at low loads.
- The transformers in the substation will experience fewer loadings if utilities set up enough capacitors on the distribution system.